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Drug Dictionary Project

Bob Loblaw

Bluelight Crew
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Mar 1, 2008
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So to make some things easier for those new to drugs, we are starting a drug/pharmacology dictionary. Feel free to contribute words (definitions and categories preferred, though not required). Hit Ctrl + F and type your word to see if it has been listed already. Please no drug slang! Drug names are not needed unless they pertain to Harm Reduction (e.g. APAP, Naltrexone).


Abscess- Enclosed collection of liquefied tissue, known as pus, somewhere in the body; result of the body's defensive reaction to foreign material, commonly formed due to missed shots
Affinity- Force that impels certain atoms or molecules to bind to or unite with other atoms or molecules to form complexes or compounds; chemical attraction
Alkaloid- Nitrogen containing drugs derived from plants (e.g. Morphine, DMT, Caffeine)
Amps or Amphetamine- alpha-Methyl Phenethylamine, a common class of stimulant, the base for many drugs (e.g. MDMA, MDA, DOx, Methampthetamine)
Amp(o)ule- Small glass vial sealed after filling, developed for safe storage of sterile injectable unit
Agonist- Compound that binds to a receptor, activating it and initiating a cascade of reactions within the receptor's cell
Anaesthesia- Complete numbness/lack of sensation
Analgesia- Pain relief
Antagonist- Compound that binds to a receptor, but does not activate it
Anticholinergic- Drug that blocks Acetylcholine; works by competitive inhibition of ACh receptors in neurons
Anxiolytic- Anti-anxiety
APAP- Acetaminophen/Paracetamol/Tylenol, NSAID commonly found in codeine/hydrocodone/oxycodone pills

Barbiturate- Derivative of barbituric acid (phenobarbital), act as CNS depressants, used for their tranquilizing, hypnotic, and anti-seizure effects
Base- a chemical having a pH lower than 7; a drug not in its salt (pharmaceutical) form
Baseline- Normal state of consciousness
Benzo(diazepine)- Class of compounds with anxiolytic, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and skeletal muscle relaxant properties
Bioassay- Determination of the potency of a drug by means of a biological indicator, frequently a human body
BA or Bioavailability- A measure of the amount of drug that is actually absorbed from a given dose
BBB Blood Brain Barrier - Naturally occurring barrier created by the modification of brain capillaries that prevents many substances from leaving the blood and crossing the capillary walls into the brain tissue
Bruxia- Teeth clenching, grinding
Buccal- ROA via putting a drug beside one's cheek

Ceiling- The maximum biological effect of a given drug, regardless of how large a dose is administered
Central Nervous System- Contains the brain and spinal cord, receives sensory impulses and transmits motor impulses to the rest of the body
Closed Eye Visuals- Hallucinations one sees after one closes his or her eyes
CNS - central nervous system, which includes the brain and brain stem
Cold Water Extraction- Removing harmful APAP from opiate/opioid pills using cold water and a filter
Comedown- The period of time after the effects of a drug begin to wane in intensity
Competitive Antagonist- Receptor antagonist that binds to a receptor but does not activate the receptor, will compete with available agonist for receptor binding sites on the same receptor
Crash- The state of mind after stimulant use, marked by lethargy/irritability
Cross-tolerance- Resistance to one or several effects of a drug as a result of tolerance developed to a pharmacologically similar compound

Deliriant- Class of drugs that produce hallucinations via blocking Acetylcholine. Included are tropane alkaloids such as scopolamine and atropine as well as pharmaceuticals such as diphenhydramine.
Depressant- Drug that reduces nervous or functional activity, such as a sedative or anesthetic
Dissociative-
Diuresis- Increased urination
Dopamine- Intermediate in tyrosine metabolism and precursor of norepinephrine and epinephrine; neurotransmitter is the peripheral and central nervous systems
Downregulate- The process by which a cell decreases the number of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein in response to external variable
Dysphoria- An emotional state marked by anxiety, depression, and restlessness

Efficacy- The capacity to produce an effect
Empathogen- Substances that create a feeling of empathy or emotional connection to others
Enantiomer- One of a pair of molecules that are nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other
Endorphins- Any of a group of the body's naturally produced opioid-receptor activators
Entactogen- Any of a group of substances that creates feelings of empathy and social closeness; this term is interchangeable with empathogen
Entheogen- Any substance, such as a plant or drug, taken to bring on a spiritual experience
Enzyme- Macromolecule acting as a catalyst to induce chemical changes in other substances, while it remains unchanged by the process
Euphoria- Feeling of happiness, confidence, or well-being sometimes exaggerated in pathological states as mania
Expectorant- Drug that promotes secretion from the mucous membrane of the air passages or increases bronchial removal of mucous

First-Pass Metabolism- Occurs after absorption of the drug from the stomach or intestine, where it flows through the hepatic portal vein to the liver to alter the drug to reveal or create a new functional group. This occurs in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of the liver.
Freebase- Unsalted form of a nitrogen (amine group) containing compound

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid- Chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. It plays a role in regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system

Half-life- Period of time required for the amount of a drug in the body to be reduced to exactly one-half of a given concentration or amount
Hallucinogen- Mind-altering drug most prominent pharmacologic action of which is on the central nervous system; causes depersonalization, perceptual disturbances, and disturbances of thought processes
Hypnotic- Drug that promotes sleep
Hypoxia- Decrease below normal levels of oxygen in arterial blood or tissue, without reaching anoxia

Idiosyncratic Response- Abnormal or unusual response to a drug which is unique to a select few people
In vitro- Study of substances in a test tube or laboratory
In vivo- Study of substances in one's body
Inhibitor- Drug that restrains or slows physiologic, chemical, or enzymatic action
Insufflate- To administer drugs up one's nose
Intramuscular- To inject drugs into one's muscles, slower than IV, faster than SC
Intravenous- To inject drugs into one's vein, the fastest/most effective ROA
Isomer- Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas

Latency period- Period of time which must elapse between when a dose of drug is taken and the time at which it produces effects
Ligand- Molecule that binds to a macromolecule, a ligand binding to a receptor
Lipid- Fatty substance found in the blood

MAOi/Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor- Class of powerful antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression
Metabolism- Sum of chemical and physical changes in tissue, chiefly of anabolism (those reactions that convert small molecules into large), and catabolism (those reactions that convert large molecules into small), including both endogenous large molecules as well as biodegradation
Methadone- Synthetic narcotic drug; an orally effective analgesic similar in action to morphine but with greater potency and longer duration; used as a replacement for morphine and heroin; also used during withdrawal treatment in morphine and heroin addiction
Miosis- Pupil constriction
MMT-
Mu Opioid Receptor- Class of opioid receptors with high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphins but low affinity for dynorphins; responsible for reducing emotional and physical response to pain
Mydriasis- Pupil Dilation

Naloxone- Potent antagonist of both endorphins and narcotics; used to treat opiate overdose to reverse coma and respiratory depression
Naltrexone- Narcotic antagonist; lacks pharmacological action when administered without narcotics
Narcotic- Analgesic drug derived from the Opium Poppy (Pipaver Somniferum)
Neurotoxic- Poisonous to substances in the nervous system
Neurotransmitter- Specific chemical released by a presynaptic cell that crosses the synapse to stimulate or inhibit the postsynaptic cell; neurotransmitters released by presynaptic cells may change transmitter release from presynaptic cells
Noncompetitive Antagonist-
Nootropic- a so-called 'smart' drug that may sharpen the mind and improve memory and cognitive tasks
NSAID- Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug; OTC analgesics such as ibuprofen, naproxen or aspirin.
Nystagmus- Involuntary rhythmic movement of the eyeballs, either like a pendulum or with slow and fast motions

Opiate- Drugs contained in the Opium poppy Papaver somniferum
Opioid- Synthetic analgesic drugs resembling opiates
Open Eye Visual/OEV- Hallucinations one experiences with one's eyes open
Out of Body Experience/OBE-
OTC- Over the Counter, indicates the legality of a drug

Parachute- To crush up a pill and place in a piece of toilet/rolling paper and swallow
Paresthesia- Spontaneous abnormal usually nonpainful sensations; may be due to lesions of both the central and peripheral nervous systems
Parasympathetic Nervous System-
Partial Agonist-
Peak- The maximum period of a drug's effects, then they diminish to a plateau, and finally a comedown
Peptide- Compound of multiple amino acids in which a carboxyl group of one is united with an amino group of another, with the elimination of a molecule of water, thus forming a peptide bond, –CO–NH–; a substituted amide
PNS - the Peripheral Nervous System, which includes the nerves and neural tissue in the body rather than the brain or brain stem (which is the CNS)
Phenethylamine- Chemical compound that consists of a benzene (phenyl) ring attached to a 2-carbon (ethyl) chain with a terminal nitrogen (amine); any of a class of compounds that shares the basic phen-ethyl-amine structure, including amphetamines.
Plateau-
Plug- To administer drugs to one via the rectum
Potentiate- Synergy in which the simultaneous effects of two or more drugs is greater than the sum of the independent effects of these drugs
Prodrug- Drug having no pharmacological activity until converted into an active compound
Pupil Constriction-
Pupil Dilation- See Mydriasis
Psychoactive- Substance inducing effects that alter perception or interpretation of ordinary sensory input
Psychedelic- Mind manifesting
Psychosis- Mental and behavioral disorder causing distortion or disorganization of a person's mental capacity, affective response, and capacity to recognize reality, communicate, and relate to others to the degree of interfering with that person's capacity to cope with the ordinary demands of everyday life

Racemic- Mixture of an equal number of dextro- and levorotatory substances, which are separable
Receptor- Structural protein molecule on a cell's surface or within the cytoplasm that binds to a specific factor, such as a drug, hormone, antigen, or neurotransmitter
Rectal- the anal part of the body
Re-uptake- Re-absorption of naturally produced substances back in to the host cell
Route of Administration/ROA- Method by which one administers drugs into one's body
RNA - Ribonucleic acid, produced by cells during part of the process of transcription of cellular DNA
Rush- a sudden sensation experienced during the taking of certain psychoactive drugs

Second-Pass Metabolism- Occurs in the cytosol of the liver, attaches the new functional group to an endogenous water soluble substance, which will allow the drug to be excreted by the kidneys
Sedative- Drug that quiets nervous excitement
Serotonin- 5-Hydroxy-Tryptamine; a neurotransmitter found mostly in the cerebrum (grey matter) and gastro-intestinal (digestive) tract
Serotonin Syndrome- Combination of symptoms resulting from elevated levels of serotonin, usually due to ingestion of two or more drugs that interfere with serotonin metabolism at different points. Symptoms occur may include agitation, confusion, diaphoresis, diarrhea, fever, shivering, tremor, myoclonus, rigidity, trismus, opisthonus, seizures, drowsiness, hallucinations, and coma. Autonomic signs include abdominal pain, diarrhea, flushing, hypertension, mydriasis, salivation, tachycardia, and tachypnea
Set-
Setting-
Sinus- Tubular channel connecting one body part with another or with the outside
Snort- See insufflate
Solubility- Ability of a solid substance (solute) to dissolve in a liquid medium (solvent)
SNRI- Serotonin-Norepinephrine Re-uptake inhibitor; slows re-absorption of SE (serotonin) and NE (norepinephrine)
SSRI- Selective Serotonin Re-uptake inhibitor; slows re-absorption of SE (serotonin) at certain types of serotonin receptors
Steep-
Stereoisomer- Molecules that have the same molecular formula, the same sequence of bonds, but different arrangements in space
Stimulant- Class of drug that elevates pre- and post-synaptic CNS activity
Subcutaneous- Underneath the skin, usually refers to an injection
Sublingual- ROA consisting of keeping drugs under one's tongue and letting the blood vessels under the tongue absorb the dose
Sympathetic Nervous System-
Synapse- Spaces between neurons (nerve cells) that are used to regulate nerve impulse transmission
Synergy- Summing of the simultaneous effects of two or more drugs such that the combined effect is greater than the effect of either of the drugs when they are given alone
Synesthesia-

Tachycardia- rapid heartbeat (generally over 100bpm)
Taper-
Time Dilation- Normal sense of time is slowed down; more events seem to happen in less amount of time
Tolerance- Body's ability to maintain balance in the presence of foreign substance, requiring more of the substance to feel effects once felt at lower doses.
Trisma-
Tryptamine- 3-ethylamino-indole, 'indole-ethylamine,' any of a class of chemicals that shares the basic indole-ethylamine structure

Upregulation-

Vasoconstriction- Blood vessel size decrease
Vasodilation- Blood vessel size increase

Wheal- Firm, elevated swelling of skin; can be light pink to dark red and are also called welts. When administering drugs subcutaneously, or if a vein is missed, a wheal will result.
Withdrawal-

Xerostomia- Dry mouth
 
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PharmTech09

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Mar 29, 2009
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South Texas
Mu Opioid Receptor- a particular class of opioid receptors with high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphins but low affinity for dynorphins. When they are activated, they are responsible for reducing the emotional and physical response to pain. Common receptor agonists (activators) are morphine and codeine.

Wheal- a firm, elevated swelling of the skin. Wheals can be light pink to dark red and are also called welts. When administering drugs subcutaneously, or if a vein is missed, a wheal will result.
 
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LabRatNW

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May 2, 2009
Messages
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Location
Salt Lake City
Freebase- The unsalted form of a nitrogen (amine group) containing compound.

Re-uptake- The re-absorption of naturally produced substances back in to the host cell

SNRI- Serotonin-Norepinephrine Re-uptake inhibitor; slows re-absorption of SE (serotonin) and NE (norepinephrine)

SSRI- Selective Serotonin Re-uptake inhibitor; slows re-absorption of SE (serotonin) at certain types of serotonin receptors

Serotonin- 5-Hydroxy-Tryptamine; a neurotransmitter found mostly in the cerebrum (grey matter) and gastro-intestinal (digestive) tract. {structural image here?}

Stereoisomer- molecules that have the same molecular formula, the same sequence of bonds, but different arrangements in space.

Stimulant- General term for Central Nervous System (CNS) stimulants, also called "uppers." Any class of drug that elevates pre- and post-synaptic CNS activity.

Subcutaneous- Underneath the skin

Synergy- Where two components action is greater than their individual action added together; The whole is greater than the sum of the parts.

Synapse- The spaces between neurons (nerve cells) that are used to regulate nerve impulse transmission.

Tachycardia- Overly strong contractions of the heart.

Time Dilation- The normal sense of time is slowed down; more events seem to happen in less amount of time.

Tolerance- The body's ability to maintain balance in the presence of foreign substance, requiring more of the substance to feel effects once felt at lower doses.

Tryptamine- 3-ethylamino-indole, 'indole-ethylamine,' any of a class of chemicals that shares the basic indole-ethylamine structure.
 

LabRatNW

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May 2, 2009
Messages
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Location
Salt Lake City
Psychoactive- Any substance inducing effects that alter perception or interpretation of ordinary sensory input

Phenethylamine- A chemical compound that consists of a benzene (phenyl) ring attached to a 2-carbon (ethyl) chain with a terminal nitrogen (amine); any of a class of compounds that shares the basic phen-ethyl-amine structure, including amphetamines.

Enactogen -> Entactogen- 'generating touch from within' - Any of a group of substances that creates feelings of empathy and social closeness, this term is interchangeable with empathogen.

Endorphins- Any of a group of the body's naturally produced opioid-receptor activators

Solubility- The ability of a solid substance (solute) to dissolve in a liquid medium (solvent)
 
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anterrabae

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Jan 28, 2007
Messages
308
I think you should add in the definition of anticholinergic that it dilates your pupils quite a bit. I've been on benztropine for a few months now and my mom thinks I'm high all the time. Only some of the time.

My psych told me it's derived from belladonna and apparently Italian women thought large pupils were attractive a few hundred years ago.
 

skillz~4~thrillz

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Aug 10, 2009
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Location
9th Circle,Hell
WOW! Excellent thread! I cannot believe I have not stumbled upon this in my journey through Bluelight. I am a perpetual student insofar as I seek truth,knowledge,facts,ect.... not bc I have to or for school. I am a seeker. Always have been. At 34,I know that all that I know is nothing.

Thanks for the time put into this!!! EXCELLENT!!!

Word.

***edit...I have some contributions to this also. I tend to read dictionaries,medical reference book,ect. I am into etymology and words period. Give me a couple days and I will add to this awesome project.

I LOVE IT!!!
 
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StaySedated

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Aug 21, 2010
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In the future
Deliriant- Class of hallucinogen that induces a state of delirium that includes the plant datura and drugs such as diphenhydramine.
 

kokaino

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Sep 8, 2007
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Detroit
Dissociative: are a class of psychoactive drugs which are said to reduce or block signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain. The effects of dissociative's can include sensory dissociation, hallucinations, mania, catalepsy, analgesia and amnesia.

Synesthesia: is a neurologically-based condition in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway.

Miosis: is the constriction of the pupil of the eye (opposite mydriasis)

MMT: Methadone Maintenance Therapy

Morphine: is the first alkaloid discovered from the opium poppy in 1804. Morphine is the gold standard, or benchmark, of analgesics used to relieve severe or agonizing pain and suffering.

Heroin: is a morphine prodrug first developed in 1874 in England by boiling anhydrous morphine alkaloid with acetic anhydride for several hours which produced a more potent, acetylated form of morphine, now called diacetylmorphine.
 
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