I think grapefruit juice still wins on a potency/(cost/liter) function though
Asian Nursing Research said:Effect of the Group Music Therapy on Brain Wave, Behavior, and Cognitive Function among Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia.
Kwon M, et al. Asian Nurs Res (Korean Soc Nurs Sci). 2013.
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of group music therapy on brain waves, behavior, and cognitive function among patients with chronic schizophrenia.
METHODS: A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was used with nonequivalent control group. The potential participants were recruited from inpatients in a psychiatric facility in a metropolitan city, assigned either to the experimental group (n = 2 or to the control group (n = 27) according to their wards to avoid treatment contamination. The experimental group participated in the group music therapy for 13 sessions over 7 weeks while continuing their standard treatment. The control group only received a standard treatment provided in the hospitals. The outcome measures include brain wave by electroencephalography, behavior by Nurses' Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation, and cognitive function by Mini-Mental State Examination.
RESULTS: After participating in 13 sessions of the group music therapy, alpha waves measured from eight different sites were consistently present for the experimental group (p = .006-.045) than the control group, revealing that the participants in the music therapy may have experienced more joyful emotions throughout the sessions. The experimental group also showed improved cognitive function (F = 13.46, p = .001) and positive behavior (social competence, social interest & personal neatness) while their negative behaviors was significantly less than those of the control group (F = 24.04, p < .001).
CONCLUSION: The group music therapy used in this study was an effective intervention for improving emotional relaxation, cognitive processing abilities along with positive behavioral changes in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Our results can be useful for establishing intervention strategies toward psychiatric rehabilitation for those who suffer from chronic mental illnesses.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26847689?dopt=AbstractThe present findings reinforce the view that psychedelics elicit psychosis-like symptoms acutely yet improve psychological wellbeing in the mid to long term. It is proposed that acute alterations in mood are secondary to a more fundamental modulation in the quality of cognition, and that increased cognitive flexibility subsequent to serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) stimulation promotes emotional lability during intoxication and leaves a residue of 'loosened cognition' in the mid to long term that is conducive to improved psychological wellbeing.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26612618/Journal of Psychopharmacology said:Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2015 Nov 27. [Epub ahead of print]
Exploring the therapeutic potential of Ayahuasca: acute intake increases mindfulness-related capacities.
Soler J1,2,3, Elices M1,3,4,5, Franquesa A4,6, Barker S7, Friedlander P8, Feilding A8, Pascual JC1,3,4, Riba J9,10,11,12.
1 Servei de Psiquiatria, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau (Barcelona), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Barcelona, Spain.
2 Departamento de Psicologia Clínica i de la Salut, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
3 Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
4 Departamento de Psiquiatria i Medicina Legal, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
5 Programa de Cognición, Instituto de Fundamentos y Métodos, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.
6 Les Corts Centre d'Higiene Mental, Barcelona, Spain.
7 Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Skip Bertman Drive at River Road, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803, USA.
8 The Beckley Foundation, Beckley Park, Oxford, OX3 9SY, UK.
9 Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain. jriba[at]santpau.cat.
10 Centre d'Investigació de Medicaments, Servei de Farmacologia Clínica, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain. jriba[at]santpau.cat.
11 Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Barcelona, Spain. jriba[at]santpau.cat.
12 Human Neuropsychopharmacology Group, Sant Pau Institute of Biomedical Research (IIB-Sant Pau), C/ Sant Antoni María Claret, 167, 08025, Barcelona, Spain. jriba[at]santpau.cat.
Ayahuasca is a psychotropic plant tea used for ritual purposes by the indigenous populations of the Amazon. In the last two decades, its use has expanded worldwide. The tea contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase-inhibiting properties. Acute administration induces an introspective dream-like experience characterized by visions and autobiographic and emotional memories. Studies of long-term users have suggested its therapeutic potential, reporting that its use has helped individuals abandon the consumption of addictive drugs. Furthermore, recent open-label studies in patients with treatment-resistant depression found that a single ayahuasca dose induced a rapid antidepressant effect that was maintained weeks after administration. Here, we conducted an exploratory study of the psychological mechanisms that could underlie the beneficial effects of ayahuasca.
We assessed a group of 25 individuals before and 24 h after an ayahuasca session using two instruments designed to measure mindfulness capacities: The Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ).
Ayahuasca intake led to significant increases in two facets of the FFMQ indicating a reduction in judgmental processing of experiences and in inner reactivity. It also led to a significant increase in decentering ability as measured by the EQ. These changes are classic goals of conventional mindfulness training, and the scores obtained are in the range of those observed after extensive mindfulness practice.
The present findings support the claim that ayahuasca has therapeutic potential and suggest that this potential is due to an increase in mindfulness capacities.
Ayahuasca; Decentering; Human; Mindfulness; Therapeutic potential
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]