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Thread: Australian Plants Containing Safrole (There's 8 native)

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    Australian Plants Containing Safrole (There's 8 native) 
    #1
    Bluelighter IWillHostIt's Avatar
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    Source: http://ausaf.awardspace.info/

    Plant Sources:

    Atherosperma moschatum
    Tasmania, Victoria and N.S.W. as far north as the Barrington Tops district

    “The leaves yielded from 1.7 - 2.65% of oil, with an approximate safrole level of 5-10%."
    Identification by fractional distillation followed by b.p. , m.p. and density tests.
    (Scott, J.Chem.Soc. 1912, 101, 1612)

    Cinnamomum baileyanum
    Far north Queensland from Cooktown to Capeyork, and Fraser Island in the south

    “The yield of bark oil was 0.6% of which 46% was safrole, the leaf oil yield of 0.1-0.3% had none.”
    Analysis by GC and GC/MS.
    (J. Essent. Oil Res., 13, 332-335, 2001)


    Cinnamomum camphora
    Most of habitable Australia

    Though this is a relatively recently introduced species it has spread so much to the point in Australia that it is now a classified as a noxious weed...
    “Certain chemo types have been found to yield a bark oil containing 50-80% safrole”
    (Safrole Faq)


    Cinnamomum laubatii
    Coastal northern Queensland

    “The leaf oil compositions indicated two chemotypes, one with no aromatic compounds and the second containing 10-40% of safrole from an oil yield of 0.3-0.4%.”
    Analysis by GC and GC/MS.
    (J. Essent. Oil Res., 13, 332-335, 2001)


    Cinnamomum oliveri
    Northern NSW and southern Queensland

    “The bark gave 0.4% oil, of which 25% was safrole.”
    Identification by fractional distillation followed by b.p. , m.p. and density tests.
    (Hargreaves, J.Chem.Soc. 1916, 109, 751)
    “The leaf oil yield was 0.2-2.3%, the majority being >1%, of which 0.3-19% was safrole usually in inverse proportion to the camphor concentration.”
    Analysis by GC and GC/MS.
    (J. Essent. Oil Res., 13, 332-335, 2001)


    Doryphora aromatica
    Northern Queensland

    “The bark gave 0.3% of oil, consisting chiefly of safrole at 95%.”
    Identification by fractional distillation followed by b.p. , m.p. and density tests.
    (Jones and Smith, Proc.Roy.Soc.Queensland, 1923, 35, 61-3 via P.E.O.R., 16, 179) - (This abstract was read from a scan of a book quoting the original report)
    "The leaves contain no aromatic compounds (safrole)."
    Analysis by GC and GC/MS.
    (J. Essent. Oil. Res. 5, 581-586, 1993)


    Doryphora sassafras
    The south of Queensland down to the eastern districts of NSW from the blue mountains west of Sydney to as far west as the Jenolan caves.

    “The leaves yielded from 0.1 to 0.85% oil, of one district had 60-65% safrole and the other district had 30% safrole.”
    Identification by fractional distillation followed by b.p. , m.p. and density tests.
    (J and Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W. 1921, 55, 270)

    “The fresh leaves had yields of 0.8 - 2% (14.71% safrole), 0.3% for the bark (14.88% safrole), and seed oil containing 13.04% safrole.”
    Analysis by GC and GC/MS.
    (J. Essent. Oil. Res. 5, 581-586, 1993)


    Eremophila longifolia
    Usually inland, continental Australia except extreme north

    "Steam distillation of the leaves gave an aromatic oil in 5.8 % yield. Various levels of safrole content between collection groups where recorded via fractional distillation and gas chromatography at (i) 72%, (ii) 90% mean / 93% best, (iii) 37%, and (iv) 0%."
    (Australian Journal of Chemistry. 1961;14:663-664)


    Zieria (Rutaceae)
    Along the east coast from Victoria to Northern Queensland

    + Essential Oil constituents of the genus Zieria:

    Analysis by GC and GC/MS.
    (Phytochemistry, vol. 26, no. 6, 1673-1686, 1987.)


    “Essential oil yields from the genus Zieria showed wide inter- and infraspecific variation (Fig. 1). Yields ranged from 0.1% and less for Z. involucrata and Z. oeronicea to 8.3 and 9.1% for Z. smithii sens. strict. and Z. grantdata, respectively. Variation within the one form was as great as 0.5-8.3 % for Z. smithii sens. strict. Some correlations between oil yield and chemistry were evident.”
    Source: http://ausaf.awardspace.info/

    More information: [URL="http://www.fao.org/docrep/v5350e/V5350e05.htm[/URL]

    Imports of safrole and isosafrole are regulated by the Customs (Prohibited Imports) Regulations
    1956. Both are listed in the Schedule 4 of the Regulations, at Item 218A (safrole) and 112A
    (isosafrole). Legal imports of safrole and isosafrole require an import licence issued by the
    Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), and an import permit issued by the TGA before the
    importation of each consignment. Safrole and isosafrole are Tier 1 goods under Reg 179AA of
    the Customs Regulations 1926, and are listed under Item 18 (safrole) and Item 8 (isosafrole) of
    the Schedule 1AA of these Regulations. Importing any quantity of safrole or isosafrole without a
    licence and permit is a criminal offence under Section 233 BAA of the Customs Act 1901, and
    is punishable by a $110,000 fine, imprisonment for five (5) years, or both.

    Source: http://www.customs.gov.au/webdata/re...s/acn04212.pdf
    ;k
    Last edited by IWillHostIt; 18-06-2009 at 13:56.
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    #2
    Bluelighter ActiveA's Avatar
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    Thanks for the read man, i found that pretty interesting.
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    #3
    Bluelighter my innerself's Avatar
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    very interesting read, anyone here know how to steam distill?
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    #4
    Bluelighter Sustanon's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by my innerself View Post
    very interesting read, anyone here know how to steam distill?
    Steam destillation is pretty easy to perform. U would just need a steam or fractional destillation apparatus. A heating source and a few flasks are needed also. The purpose is to find out what the boiling points are then go from there.

    Ud need an awful big amount of raw material to get a few mls of safrole. Better to look into pure oils that u can buy online. Sassafras oil is what one would most likely need. Usually its mixed with alcohol and water or something similar and can steam destill it.
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    #5
    Bluelight Crew phase_dancer's Avatar
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    Firstly, while there's good info in the page, much of it no doubt reliable, there are a couple of points worth noting.

    1) The referenced 'safrole FAQ' has been shown to have errors, and probably shouldn't be relied on. It lists a broad range of safrole levels in particular chemotypes of Cinnamomum camphora of between 50-80%. My own uni studies on this revealed a much lower average which was confirmed by other Australian researchers. The chemotypes (cineole and camphor) are impossible to discern between from physical appearance.

    2) References to % content that are pre 1950's must be seen in context with the technology of the day. The means to fully evaluate such levels were not available at that time. Some methods such as fractional distillation, chromatography etc. of course were available, but trace level analysis was a far cry from what it is today. So, any ref from that period should be confirmed with a more recent finding.

    3) Steam distillation is simple but it won't separate many of the other constituents from safrole. If the boiling points of the constituents are within ~10-15 deg C of each other, fractional distillation will not be a practical option (unless you're very good and know all the tricks). Other means can be used though....


    The plant I've heard that has been used in Aus as a source of safrole is Eremophila longifolia (weeping Emu bush). As the oil is present in sufficient quantities it should make extraction relatively easy.

    Just on toxicity: While I believe there has been some hype in regards to the max levels of exposure and postulated human LD50 levels, I would advise caution if coming in contact with this allylbenzene - particularly if this is for the long durations needed to process the plant material and oils. If you are predisposed, or on certain medications, the potential for toxicity is likely to be more significant.

    The law and stinky stuff....

    To those who think they might have a go at producing safrole; be well aware that it's regarded by the law as a precursor (although chemically speaking it isn't) and will carry potential penalties similar to possessing / refining pseudoephedrine.

    Also, safrole will permeate everything, and working with it will likely result in the odour being detected some distance from the source. Spills can stink for many months later no matter what is done to clean up.
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    #6
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    Thats why its good for festivals the dogs just go home with a little planning the day before. Meaning the cops bring in fakes and just pick certain people though.
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    #7
    Bluelighter Sustanon's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Heisenberg View Post
    Thats why its good for festivals the dogs just go home with a little planning the day before. Meaning the cops bring in fakes and just pick certain people though.
    What do u mean by that?
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    #8
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    Sassy oil. Trick the doggies. They smell for intermediates and impurities and certain solvents. Only need a small drop every few feet the stuff stays around a lot. Watch out for CCTV
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    #9
    Bluelighter expothead's Avatar
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    presumably this thread is for the benefit of all those struggling clandestine ecstasy labs...
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    #10
    Bluelight Crew phase_dancer's Avatar
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    Yes I'd wondered what HR value could come from it.

    If we knew what (if any) plants were being used, it would certainly then be worthwhile looking at the complete constituents of those plants, and how easily these compounds would be separated from the desired starting material.

    Questions that would then arise; what are the properties of such compounds, and what are the potential toxicities of any side reaction products of a typical synthesis?
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    #11
    Bluelight Crew PsiloSubNaut's Avatar
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    Interesting read.

    When looking at the current pill market, safrole for the purpose of an MDMA synth has some HR properties.

    Although if it were done and did make it into a press, the ratio of MDMA to crud would probably be as low as usual.
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    #12
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    Depends how far they go at cleaning i guess. with the current demand i doubt they'll be a shulgin
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    #13
    Bluelighter expothead's Avatar
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    meh - aussies are lazy. could they be bothered with all that extraction fuss?
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    #14
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    Yeah, look at our meth. lol
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    #15
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    Quote Originally Posted by expothead View Post
    meh - aussies are lazy. could they be bothered with all that extraction fuss?
    They dont have the talent for it. And no they are way to lazy, the meth labs that are busted here are only capable of making small batches at a time by extracting the pseudo from cough medicines. Most meth or pseudo is imported from Asia.

    Its not worth extracting any plant material. Just look at the coca leaves or poppies. How many kgs of leaves are needed for a gram of coke? Its only worth it if u grow it big. I think the DEA has cracked down on the major suppliers for most scheduled chemicals and its getting harder to produce MDMA. Sad but true.
    In EU 5 years ago 7/10 people could of got some pills which were all different logos. Nowdays prob the same but there all pips lol
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    #16
    Bluelighter IWillHostIt's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by expothead View Post
    presumably this thread is for the benefit of all those struggling clandestine ecstasy labs...
    *head nod* no doubt.
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    #17
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    Warning: be wary of trying sassafras oil as a recreational substance, though; consider the very uneven results people have had with nutmeg (which contains some safrole and similar chemicals.) Shulgin reports that liver cells can convert safrole to MDA in small amounts, although it may well be psychoactive in it's own right.

    Although toxicological studies show that humans do not process safrole into its carcinogenic metabolite. According to a 1977 study of the metabolites of safrole in both rats and humans, it was shown that two carcinogenic metabolites of safrole found in the urine of rats, 1'-Hydroxysafrole and 3'-Hydroxyisosafrole, were not found in human urine. This brings to question the actual carcinogenicity of safrole in humans.

    SOURCE: http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Safrole
    Last edited by IWillHostIt; 05-06-2009 at 03:10. Reason: Put warning in red.
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    #18
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    Rabits livers can turn safrole into MDA.
    Dose em up Slaughter em all! Theyre oests in QLD anyway

    Dont use it as sold as a rubbing oil, the person who gave me some years and years ago said to rub it on your calfs for a "trippy walk" or if you are going clubbing on your temples.. well I spent about an hour washing the stuff off my face because of the worst sting ever.

    Dont drink/eat this stuff



    Edit: Placebo? Dont know but for 30 minutes I had that MDXX type of colour enhancement for lights in the dark
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    #19
    Bluelight Crew phase_dancer's Avatar
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    There are relatively few essential oils that can be safely applied to the skin undiluted. Sassafras is not one of them. When used externally for delousing, the concentration of the oil in such preparations is low, usually less than 1%.

    For goodness sake don't take either sassafras oil or it's chief constituent internally.
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    #20
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    Learnt the hard way, a certain vendor was offering 98% sassy vials. Saw a guy buy like 20 at once lol. I gotthe free last one and last nutmeg oil (that worries me that he bought those also) because he said he wanted to get rid of it as he suspected the guy was using it for something. and i bought something else there.

    You smell the stuff at raves and doofs a lot, people rub it on their legs for a "blow up"
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    #21
    Bluelight Crew phase_dancer's Avatar
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    You smell the stuff at raves and doofs a lot, people rub it on their legs for a "blow up"
    Yes, I've noticed it many times. I've even seen vendors and massage people selling it as an insect repellent, advising customers to rub it directly onto the body. Bad practice imo.
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    #22
    Bluelighter IWillHostIt's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by phase_dancer View Post
    There are relatively few essential oils that can be safely applied to the skin undiluted. Sassafras is not one of them. When used externally for delousing, the concentration of the oil in such preparations is low, usually less than 1%.

    For goodness sake don't take either sassafras oil or it's chief constituent internally.
    Don't you mean externally? haha I corrected you.
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    #23
    Bluelighter Sustanon's Avatar
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    Haha i couldnt imagine drinking it as the essential oil is pretty toxic. I still dont understand why people take nutmeg lol
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    #24
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    More info about safrole

    • Safrole and isosafrole is Schedule 4 in Australia.
    • One kilogram of pure safrole or isosafrole enables production of more than 3000 MDMA tablets.
    • Safrole has been dectected in more then 50 plant species
    • In this part of the world- Australian East Coast, there is a pest xenotype known as Cinnamomum Camphora (camphor laural). Large trees abound, and if found growing on a dry hillside, the safrole content can be reasonably high. So much so, that often when the root bark is exposed, the odour is instantly recognizable as safrole, not camphor.
      Source: http://www.bluelight.ru/vb/showthread.php?t=237810
    • Safrole is also listed as a cat #1 substance in the UK and therefore a permit is required to buy or sell any safrole containing oil.
    • In the US, safrole is currently a List I chemical. SOURCE:
      http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/top...t_of_chemicals
    • Sassafras keeps mosquitoes and flies away therefore it is an asset to any garden.
    • The root bark of the plants has been fermented to make molasses and beer.


    Medicinal properties

    Sassafras is still being used externally for skin aliments, wounds and rubbing of oil on affected areas. In Europe, sassafras was used to cure syphilis. Although it can safely be used for eczema and psoriasis it is found to relieve arthritic pain, gout and rheumatism. Its strong smell makes its useful for dental care too. It can be used as a mouthwash to remove infection. Sassafras can also be applied on the head to kill lice. It is useful to relive intestinal gas. It has proved well as a diuretic too. Sassafras can be used in fevers. So much warning comes with the properties many patients shy away from using it. Like every other tree has its worth, sassafras too enjoys its position in the medical world. The root after it is free from safrole is used as a flavoring agent and the leaves are useful for file powder. Its aroma is useful as potpourri in rooms for creating fragrance. And what else is the tree useful for - making fences, boats and canoes, furniture, can be used as cooperage as it can be a good source for timber. There is a story that beds made from sassafras get out fragrance so that evil spirits keep away. One cannot deny the curative abilities of the tree. Tree lovers still respect its utility.
    Last edited by IWillHostIt; 30-06-2009 at 05:20. Reason: Acention. meh. I'm alright
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    #25
    Bluelighter IWillHostIt's Avatar
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    I forgot to add the above ^ to my first post in this thread. Can a moderator please add above post underneath my first.
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